SaltRocks! Mineral Investigation:  LIBRARY of ARTICLES About Salt
  • The History of Chemically Produced Salt
    • Finding Out More About Mass Production...
      • The industry for chemically produced salt began in 1807 when a British chemist, Sir Humphrey Davy, isolated sodium, the seventh most common element on Earth, from salt. Three years later, in 1810, Sir Davy further isolated chloride which completed the man-made or manufactured rendition of salt.

        Many years passed before it was discovered that a key component was missing from the salt that was no longer consumed in its natural form. Multitudes of people and animals were getting sick from iodine deficiency and finally, by 1924, the Michigan Medical Association prompted the Morton Salt Company to add iodine back into its manufactured salt supply (only one of many eliminated elements originally present in pure salt).

        • Historical data is derived from the book, "The Story of Salt" by Mark Kurlansky
  • Scientific Nuggets of Truth About Salt
    • The Transforming Power of Salt
      • From a scientific point of view, salt has a very unique property. In contrast to all other crystalline structures, the atomic structure of salt is not molecular, but electrical. This fact is what makes salt so transformable. When we submerge a quartz crystal, it does not change molecularly, though it has a crystalline structure. Although the crystal can give its energy or its frequency pattern into the surrounding water, which is effortlessly absorbed, the quartz crystal remains the same. The crystal is too rooted in matter to be dissolved or disassociated from its polarity.

        When we submerge a crystal of salt into water, it dissolves, and the sole (so-lay) is created. Sole is neither water nor salt. It is a higher energetic dimension than either the water or the salt alone. When the sole evaporates, the salt is left behind. This transformability of salt ensures that it does not have to be metabolized in our body. Starch is transformed into sugar, protein into amino acids and fat into glycerin and acid. But salt remains salt. It is directly available to the cells in its ionized form as sole. All other foods must be separated into their components in order for the body to make use of them. But salt always remains in its original form. It even accesses our brain directly.

        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • Salt & Brain Activity
      • Even the simplest processes in our body need salt or its inherent elements in ionized form. For example, it is the task of our nervous system to transmit the stimulation that has been recorded via sensory input to our brain, which in return passes this information back to our muscles in order for us to react to the respective stimuli. An electric potential occurs on the membrane wall of the cells when the positively charged potassium ions leave the cell and the positively charged sodium ions cannot enter due to their size. The outside becomes positively charged and the inside negatively charged. When a nerve cell is stimulated, its membrane suddenly becomes polar opposite and consequently is permeable for the sodium ion. In one-thousandth of a second (1/1000th), the electrical potential is transformed and releases, with every nerve impulse, 90 mill volts of energy. The received stimuli are now being converted into thoughts and actions. Without the elements of potassium and sodium in the salt this process is not possible. Not even a single thought is possible, let alone an action, without their presence. Just the simple act of drinking a glass of water requires millions of instructions that come as impulses. In the beginning there is the thought. This thought is nothing but an electromagnetic frequency. The salt is responsible for enabling this frequency to transmit commands to the muscles and organs.
        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • How Salt Became Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
      • With the advent of industrial development, natural salt was "chemically cleaned" and reduced to the combination of sodium and chloride. Essential minerals and trace elements were removed as impurities. However, sodium chloride is an unnatural, isolated, unwholesome substance having nothing in common with salt. Similar to white, refined sugar, salt, once regarded as white gold, was converted into white poison. However, there is a higher reason for last having been endowed with all the natural elements found in our bodies. Sodium chloride is an aggressive substance, which biochemically, is perpetually seeking an equalizing counterpart in order for it to produce its effect. The natural counterparts, such as potassium, calcium magnesium and other minerals and trace elements, demonstrate, from a biophysical standpoint, specific frequency patterns. These patterns ensure the geometric structures in our body. When these structures are missing, we are without energy and are lifeless. Salt should not be used just to add flavor to our food, but for its vibration pattern, which is similar to our body!
        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • White Gold to White Poison
      • As common as saltshakers are to our kitchens, so are the numbers of diseases associated with salt's daily use. Life is not possible without salt. But our consumption of salt is killing us. Why is that? Because our regular table salt no longer has anything in common with the original crystal salt of which we're talking about here. Salt nowadays is mainly sodium chloride and not salt. Natural crystal salt consists not only of two, but also of all natural elements. These are identical to the elements of which our bodies have been built and also originally found existing in the "primal ocean"... Interesting enough, our blood is a sole, containing the same salty solution with the same ratio of concentration as that of the primal sea, that is, a fluid consisting of water and salt. This sole flows through more than 56,000 miles of waterways and blood vessels throughout our organism with the forces of gravity and levity and regulates and balances the functions of our body.
        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • How Table Salt Burdens the Body
      • While our body only requires the minute amount of 0.007 ounces of salt per day, most of us suffer from a lack of salt, even though we're over-saturated with sodium chloride. When our consumption of salt is less than 0.007 ounces per day, salt craving kicks in. The average, per capita, daily consumption of table salt in the U.S. is between 0.4 ounces and 0.7 ounces. However, our body is only able to excrete 0.17 ounces to 0.25 ounces a day through our kidneys, depending on our age, constitution and gender. The body recognizes table salt as an aggressive cellular poison, an unnatural substance, and wants to eliminate it as quickly as possible in order to protect itself. This causes a constant overburden on our organs of excretion. In almost every preserved product, salt is used as part of the preservation process. So, by adding salt to the already-salted food, the body receives more salt than it can eliminate.
        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • The Consequences of Consuming Table Salt
      • The result of consuming common table salt is the formation of overly acidic edema, or excess fluid in the body tissue, which is also the cause of cellulite. That's why doctors tell us to avoid salt. For every .035 ounces of sodium chloride that cannot be eliminated the body uses 23 times (23x) the amount of its own cell water to neutralize the salt. If the sodium chloride is still too high, re-crystallization of the table salt occurs as the body uses available non-degradable animal proteins (as those found in milk), which also have no value and cannot be broken down and eliminated. The body uses these proteins to produce uric acid in order to get rid of the excess salt. The body cannot dispose of uric acid; it binds itself with the sodium chloride to form new crystals that are deposited directly in the bones and joints. This is the cause of different kinds of rheumatism such as arthritis, gout, and kidney and gall bladder stones. This re-crystallization is the body's band-aid solution for the cells and organs in order to protect the body from irreparable damage of irresponsible food intake. But in the long run, it poisons the system because those substances cannot be disposed of.
        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • The Difference Between Rock and Crystal Salt
      • Rock Salt

        The elements in rock salt are not integrated into the salt's crystal grid, but cling to the outside surface and crevices of the crystalline structure. This is the fundamental difference between rock salt and crystal salt. A salt crystal manifests a superior structure. Due to this sublime form, the elements are bio-chemically available for our cells as are the individual frequencies or vibration patterns. Rock salt is a cheap alternative to table salt, and is at least a natural and wholesome product. Bio-chemically and biophysically however, it is of little importance to our organism. We can only receive the resonant effects of the geometrical structure through the superior order or structure of a crystal and our cells can only absorb those elements that occur in an ional form. Only under considerable pressure can the elements be transformed into a specific size, making them ional, which enables them to pass through our cell wall. This is important because our cells can only absorb what is available organically or ionally. Therefore we cannot absorb the minerals from mineral water as they're not refined enough to penetrate our cell walls. And what doesn't get into our cells cannot be metabolized. Therefore, the best calcium is useless if it cannot be available to the body's cells. What we need is the organic or ional state of an element, in perfect natural symbiosis with all its associated elements, in order for our organism to make any use of it.

        Crystal Salt
                  Pure, natural crystal salt has been subjected to enormous pressure over the years. The pressure is responsible for creating the salt crystals. The higher the amount of pressure the more superior or excellent the state of order within the crystalline structure. Salt, for us, is foremost an information carrier and not a spice. For information to be absorbed into our cell, a crystalline structure is necessary. Chemically, a stone and a quartz crystal are both silicates. However, the vast difference in the amounts of pressure they were subjected to, distinguishes them. The quartz crystal embodies a perfect geometric form, a perfect state of order within its structure. The stone does not. Its elements are coarse, because it was not subjected to enough pressure to create a crystalline structure. Crystal salt layers wind through the mountain of salt, shimmering in transparent white, pinkish or reddish veins. Only with sufficient pressure was the salt of the salt mountain transformed into crystal salt. The elements trapped within the crystal salt are particles small enough to be able to penetrate the human cells and be metabolized.

        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • The Healing Effect of Crystal Salt
      • For thousands of years salt has been known as a panacea. Alchemists called it the "fifth element" - besides water, earth, air and fire - because its qualities were comparable only to ether, the actual fifth element. Why are we so drawn to the ocean? Because our subconscious mind instinctively wants to receive the vibrational state of the ocean from which we so identify. This is where we can return to recharge our batteries and regenerate. It was only two hundred fifty years ago, with the advent of industrialization, that we initiated our disconnection from nature and its ways. Fortunately, we are witnessing a trend to return back to natural, holistic methods for living and caring for our body, including a shift back to utilizing natural salts in this process. People everywhere are reconsidering the healing effects of natural crystal salt. We can find it in skin care lotions and for use as bath salts, and it is even used in inhalation or cleansing treatment for illnesses of the respiratory system and for a variety of other indications.
        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
    • The Neutralizing Effect of Salt
      • The healing properties of salt are also known in allopathic medicine. The largest and oldest salt works in Europe occupies the royal salt mine of Wieliczka, Poland, just 7.5 miles outside of Krakow. Here, a hospital was carved out of the expansive salt mountain, seven hundred forty feet below the surface, specifically for asthmatics and patients with lung disease and allergies. Several thousand patients have been successfully treated in this hospital. The healing rate is astonishingly over 90%. Recognition of the healing effects of salt chambers has influenced the construction of a similar underground spa located in the salt mine of Berchtesgaden in Germany. The therapeutic benefits of long-term residency inside the healing salt chambers are allopathically acknowledged. The healing effects were originally thought to be related to the purity of the air within the mine's chambers. But if it was only a question of the purity of the air, why was the air in the cave so healthy, and the air above-surface so unhealthy? One cause has been determined. Our houses are charged with electromagnetic devices, such as TVs, stereos, computers, microwave ovens and the basic electric currents running through our walls. And, when not at home, we hold cell phones to our ears while driving in our cars and walking through our daily lives. This electro-smog causes an excess of positively charged ions that disturb the balance between the positively and negatively charged particles. Further, it creates an excess of positively charged, chemically unbound particles in the air.
        • Source:
          "Water and Salt, The Essence of Life"
           by Barbara Hendel, MD and Peter Ferreira, Biophysicist
  • Salt Intake is Vital
    • How Salt and Water Work Together
      • Salt is a vital substance for the survival of all living creatures, particularly humans. Water and salt regulate the water content of the body. Water itself regulates the water content of the interior of the cell by working its way into all of the cells it reaches. It has to get there to cleanse and extract the toxic wastes of cell metabolisms. Salt forces some water to stay outside the cells. It balances the amount of water that stays outside the cells. There are two oceans of water in the body; one ocean is held inside the cells of the body, and the other ocean is held outside the cells. Good health depends on a most delicate balance between the volume of these oceans, and this balance is achieved by salt - unrefined salt.

        When water is available to get inside the cells freely, it is filtered from the outside salty ocean and injected into the cells that are being overworked despite their water shortage. This is the reason why, in severe dehydration, we develop an edema and retain water. The design of our bodies is such that the extent of the ocean of water outside the cells is expanded to have the extra water available for filtration and emergency injection into vital cells. The brain commands an increase in salt and water retention by the kidneys. This is how we get an edema when we don't drink enough water.

        Initially, the process of water filtration and its delivery into the cells is more efficient at night when the body is horizontal. The collected water, that mostly pools in the legs, does not have to fight the force of gravity to get onto the blood circulation. If reliance of this process of emergency hydration of some cells continues for long, the lungs begin to get waterlogged at night, and breathing becomes difficult. The person needs more pillows to sit upright to sleep. This condition is the consequence of dehydration. However, you might overload the system by drinking too much water at the beginning. Increases in water intake must be slow and spread out until urine production begins to increase at the same rate that you drink water.

        When we drink enough water to pass clear urine, we also pass out a lot of the salt that was held back. This is how we can get rid of edema fluid in the body; by drinking more water. Not diuretics, but more water!! In people who have an extensive edema and show signs of their heart beginning to have irregular or very rapid beats with least effort, the increase in water intake should be gradual and spaced out, but not withheld from the body. Naturally, salt intake should be limited for two or three days because the body is still in an overdrive mode to retain it. Once the edema has cleared up, salt should not be withheld from the body.

        • Source: "Water: Rx for a Healthier Pain-Free Life" by Dr. Batmanghelidj
    • Specific Vital Functions for Salt in the Body


      • 1. Salt is most effective in stabilizing irregular heartbeats and, contrary to the misconception that it causes high blood pressure, it is actually essential for the regulation of blood pressure - in conjunction with water. Naturally, the proportions are critical.

        2. Salt is vital to the extraction of excess acidity from the cells in the body, particularly the brain cells.

        3. Salt is vital for balancing the sugar levels in the blood; a needed element in diabetics.

        4. Salt is vital for the generation of hydroelectric energy in cells in the body. It is used for local power generation at the sites of energy needed by the cells.

        5. Salt is vital to the nerve cells' communication and information processing all the time that the brain cells work, from the moment of conception to death.

        6. Salt is vital for absorption of food particles through the intestinal tract.

        7. Salt is vital for the clearance of the lungs of mucus plugs and sticky phlegm, particularly in asthma and cystic fibrosis.

        8. Salt is vital for clearing up catarrh and congestion of the sinuses.

        9. Salt is a strong natural antihistamine.

        10. Salt is essential for the prevention of muscle cramps.

        11. Salt is vital to prevent excess saliva production to the point that it flows out of the mouth during sleep. Needing to constantly mop up excess saliva indicates salt shortage.

        12. Salt is absolutely vital to making the structure of bones firm. Osteoporosis, in a major way, is a result of salt and water shortage in the body.

        13. Salt is vital for sleep regulation. It is a natural hypnotic.

        14. Salt is a vitally needed element in the treatment of diabetics.

        15. Salt on the tongue will stop persistent dry coughs.

        16. Salt is vital for the prevention of gout and gouty arthritis.

        17. Salt is vital for maintaining sexuality and libido.

        18. Salt is vital for preventing varicose veins and spider veins on the legs and thighs.

        19. Salt is vital to the communication and information processing nerve cells the entire time that the brain cells work - from the moment of conception to death.

        20. Salt is vital for reducing a double chin. When the body is short of salt, it means the body really is short of water. The salivary glands sense the salt shortage and are obliged to produce more saliva to lubricate the act of chewing and swallowing and also to supply the stomach with water that it needs for breaking down foods. Circulation to the salivary glands increases and the blood vessels become "leaky" in order to supply the glands with water to manufacture saliva. The "leakiness" spills beyond the area of the glands themselves, causing increased bulk under the skin of the chin, the cheeks and into the neck.

        21. Sea salt contains about 80 mineral elements that the body needs. Some of these elements are needed in trace amounts. Unrefined sea salt is a better choice of salt than other types of salt on the market. Ordinary table salt that is bought in the super markets has been stripped of its companion elements and contains additive elements such as aluminum silicate to keep it powdery and porous. Aluminum is a very toxic element in our nervous system. It is implicated as one of the primary causes of Alzheimer's disease.

        22. Twenty-seven percent of the body's salt is in the bones. Osteoporosis results when the body needs more salt and takes it from the body. Bones are 22% water. Is it not obvious what happens to the bones when we're deficient in salt or water or both?
        • Source: "Water: Rx for a Healthier Pain-Free Life" by Dr. Batmanghelidj
  • A Taste for Salt in the History of Medicine by Science Tribune
    • The Properties/Power of Salt Seen in a Journey through Medicine's History...
      • "There must be something sacred in salt. It is in our tears and in the ocean."    (Khalil Gibran)
        Is human life without salt imaginable? Probably not. Salt symbolises life itself. Basic physiological functions depend on a balance between salts and liquids in the body. When the balance is upset, disease may occur. Salt has been an essential, virtually omnipresent, part of medicine for thousands of years. It has been used as a remedy, a support treatment, and a preventative measure. It has been taken internally or applied topically and been administered in an exceedingly wide variety of forms. We shall take a journey through the history of the use of salt in medicine and discover that empirical knowledge of the benefits - and sometimes drawbacks of salt - has been a hallmark of many civilisations.

        When Lot's wife looked back to catch a last glimpse at the burning city of Sodom, she turned into a pillar of salt. Roman priests scattered salt where the city of Carthage once stood to prevent any return of life. These allegories contradict what we know about salt today. Dissolved common salt (sodium chloride) is present in all the human body and plays crucial physiological roles in life-sustaining processes (a). Life cannot exist without salt. But when did salt become associated with healing powers? And what are its healing powers? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Our journey through the history of medicine will illustrate how the properties of salt have been viewed with time.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in Egyptian Medicine
      • Salt is mentioned as an essential ingredient in medical science in some of the oldest medical scripts. The ancient Egyptian papyrus Smith, which is thought to refer to the famous master-builder and doctor Imhotep of the third pre-Christian millennium, recommends salt for the treatment of an infected chest wound. The belief was that salt would dry out and disinfect the wound (b). The papyrus Ebers (1600 BC) describes many salt recipes especially for making laxatives and anti-infectives. They were dispensed in either liquid, suppository or ointment form. For instance, there was a suppository containing honey, vegetable seeds and ocean salt that was used as a laxative and one with incense, vegetable seeds, fat, oil and ocean salt against anal infections. Salt-based remedies were also prescribed for callous skin, epidemic diseases, to check bleeding, as an eye ointment, and to accelerate childbirth (a vaginal suppository).
        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in Greek Medicine
      • Both sea salt and rock salt were well known to the ancient Greeks who noted that eating salty food affected basic body functions such as digestion and excretion (urine and stools). This led to salt being used medically. The healing methods of Hippocrates (460 BC) especially made frequent use of salt. Salt-based remedies were thought to have expectorant powers. A mixture of water, salt, and vinegar was employed as an emetic. Drinking a mixture of two-thirds cow's milk and one-third salt-water, in the mornings, on an empty stomach was recommended as a cure for diseases of the spleen. A mixture of salt and honey was applied topically to clean bad ulcers and salt-water was used externally against skin diseases and freckles. Hippocrates also mentions inhalation of steam from salt-water. We know today that the antiinflammatory effects of inhaled salt provide relief from respiratory symptoms (c). Thus, 2000 years ago, Greek medicine had already discovered topical use of salt for skin lesions, drinking salty or mineralized waters for digestive troubles and inhaling salt for respiratory diseases!
        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Roman Salt-Containing Recipes
      • The Roman military doctor Dioskurides (100 AD) is regarded as one of the most important medical authors of Antiquity. His work Materia Medica summarises the botanical and pharmacological know-how of his time. Dioskurides considered "honey-rain-ocean water" to be an excellent emetic. Salty vinegar was helpful against "binging and rotting callosities" and bites (dogs and poisonous animals), to check bleeding after surgery, as a gargle to kill leeches and to get rid of "scab and crust". Salt added to wine and water was a laxative.

        Both sea and rock salt were used in remedies but rock salt was considered to be the strongest. The salt was generally mixed with other ingredients (e.g. vinegar, honey, fat, flour, pitch, resin) and could be dispensed in several forms (drink, suppository, clyster (enema), ointment, oil). The main recommended indications were skin diseases, dropsy, infections, callosities, ear-ache, mycosis, digestive upsets, sciatica.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • The Inheritance of Classical Antiquity
      • The Greek doctor Galen from Pergamon (129-200 AD), physician-in-ordinary to the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, summarised the medical concepts of antiquity and left his mark on western medicine for over 1000 years. His medical system also made use of salt (sea salt, rock salt, salt foam) in recipes against many diseases: infectious wounds, skin diseases, callosities, digestive troubles. His list of salt-containing remedies also included emetics and laxatives.
        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in the Arab World
      • Eight hundred years later, the medical precepts of the well-known Arab doctor and scientist Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 980-1037 AD) laid the foundations of modern scientific medicine. His recipes also used salt. He emphasised the presence of iodine and iron in coastal sea salt. The Jewish doctor Maimonides (1135-1204 AD), physician-in-ordinary to the caliph in Persia, wrote in his Dianetic for soul and body that only bread with enough salt was healthy food.
        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in Medicines of the Middle Ages
      • The School of Salerno (11th-13th Century AD) founded western European academic medicine in the Middle Ages. It is seen as the first European university to bring together medical knowledge of Greek and Arab origin and transcribe it in Latin. Its writings reveal an awareness of the use of a mixture of salt, oil and vinegar as an emetic and of suppositories of salt and honey as an effective remedy against constipation (see Egyptian Medicine above). Powdered and roasted salt was said to have a pain-killing effect and rock salt was considered to be a good remedy against fever.

        The School published a book on The Art of Staying Healthy which was a collection of sayings and poems providing Crusaders with life regimens they could understand. It was in fact one of the first popular medical manuals for people versed in Latin and for academically trained physicians. The book explicitly recommended salted bread and food. Salt not only made food tasty but drove off toxins. However, it also warned against too much salt: "Too salty food diminishes semen and eyesight - salt burns, makes one fretful, shabby, scabby and wrinkly."

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in Renaissance Medicine
      • The doctor and alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541 AD) introduced an entirely new medical concept. He believed that external factors create disease and conceived a chemically oriented medical system which contrasted with the prevalent herbal medicine. Only salted food could be digested properly: "The human being must have salt, he cannot be without salt. Where there is no salt, nothing will remain, but everything will tend to rot."  He recommended salt water for the treatment of wounds and for use against intestinal worms. A hip-bath in salt water was a superb remedy for skin diseases and itching: "This brine - he said - is better than all the health spas arising out of nature." He described the diuretic effect of salt consumption and prescribed salt preparations of different strengths that were used, for instance, against constipation.
        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in 16th-19th Century Pharmacies
      • The pharmacies of the 16th century continued to relate the various uses of salt to its external aspect (rock salt, sea salt, refined salt and roasted salt). Respect for salt was as deep as prices were high. Until the 18th century, the preferred and most common pharmacy salt was rock salt which, in Germany, came chiefly from the Carpathian Mountains, Transylvania, the Tyrol, and Poland. Rock and sea salt were still listed separately in the 1833 chemical-pharmaceutical handbook but, as from 1850, the origin of the salt was no longer specified.

        The pharmacists of the 19th century recommended internal use of salt against digestive upsets, goitre, glandular diseases, intestinal worms, dysentery, dropsy, epilepsy, and syphilis. Externally applied salt (e.g. cold or warm hip-baths) was said to be locally stimulating but acerbic to skin and mucous membranes at high doses. External application was advised in cases of rash and swelling and, in ophthalmology, to drive off stains and stain-obscurations of the cornea. A clyster (enema) of salt was even supposed to work for patients who were "seemingly dead and apoplectical".

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in Encyclopaedias and Popular Medicine in the 18th and 19th Centuries
      • The encyclopaedias of the 18th century published extensive treatises on salt, in particular, rock and sea salt; and referred to current knowledge on the healing powers of salt. A particularly infamous book was the Dirty Pharmacy by Paulini (1734) which held a collection of the nastiest imaginable mixtures for diseases of all kinds. Salt was a frequent ingredient. For instance, red watering eyes could be treated by covering them with a mush of fresh manure from a black cow, beer-vinegar, and half a knife's tip of salt.

        Medical practitioners of the 19th century paid particular attention to the effects of natural salt. In 1860, in eastern Bavaria, a sodium chloride solution was used as a compress against inflammation. Further west, inflammations of the belly button of children were washed with salt water. Warts were removed by spreading the juice of a snail that had been sprinkled with salt. Hot foot-baths containing salt and ashes were used to alleviate headaches. Burns were treated with brandy, vinegar or salt water.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt in 20th Century Medicine
      • As indicated above, salt was an important ingredient of remedies in Europe, on a par with natural products such as herbs, until the late Middle Ages. From then onwards, it became an item in the medicine chest of popular, rather than academic, medicine. It was not until spa therapy gained popularity in the 19th century that its healing powers gradually began to be investigated scientifically and not until the 1950s that its effects were studied in any detail.

        Today, salt is a natural healing principle used in the form of inhalations, salt-water baths and in drinking-therapy. An important discovery of 20th century medicine is that salt water - in the form of an isotonic sodium chloride (saline) solution - has the same fluid quality as blood plasma. This has led to the use of salt solutions as intravenous infusions. However, salt solutions are also used subcutaneously, intramuscularly, as an enema or externally.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Infusing Saline
      • In 1832, the English doctors R. Lewins and T. Latta, used a sodium chloride infusion successfully against cholera for the first time. Nowadays, isotonic sodium chloride solution (saline) has many uses:
        » as a "replacement fluid" in emergencies. Saline can temporarily replace large amounts of lost blood and thus often saves the lives of accident victims. It can palliate prolonged loss of gastric juices.
        » as a "tool and washing liquid". Chilled saline is used to determine cardiac output per minute, for medically founded forced drainage, to wash red blood cells for blood transfusions, and, at body temperature, to irrigate organs (e.g. gastro-intestinal tract, bladder).
        » as a "carrier" solution for drugs.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • From Applying Salt to Bathing in Salt
      • Our journey through history has revealed that the antiseptic action of salt on the skin and mucous membranes has been known for a very long time. Scientific studies have now confirmed the effectiveness of salt therapy in several indications. The antiseptic and bactericidal qualities of dental salt (sea salt) help remove plaque which is a cause of gingivitis and caries. Salt is being increasingly used as support treatment for skin diseases. Chronically inflamed skin is treated with medical bath salt from the Dead Sea (d) or table salt. The salt peels off dandruff, reduces inflammation, itching and pain, and helps regenerate the skin. Salt-baths are frequently used to treat psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, chronic eczema as well as arthritis. Sometimes (as in psoriasis), this therapy is followed by ultraviolet light radiotherapy under strict medical control so that the combination of salt water and UV light does not expose patients to an increased risk of skin cancer.

        The ancient Greeks had already recommended seaside health resorts to cure skin diseases and Paracelsus mentioned the effectiveness of "salt brine". Sea-water baths later led to salt-water baths in regions closely linked with the extraction of salt (salt mines, springs and works) but it was not until 1800 that doctors from the German town of Bad Nauheim introduced a methodical salt-bath therapy (6). They tried to obtain scientific evidence for claims regarding the healing effects of the waters. Current medical indications for salt-bath therapy rest, as a matter of principle, on the empirical traditions of centuries. They include support treatment for skin diseases due to the anti-inflammatory action of salt. Patients suffering from rheumatic conditions often experience relief from joint pain when moving about in a salt bath.

        Finally, common or Dead Sea salt can be used as an additive especially in body care products (ointments, shampoos, gels, washes and body lotions).

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Inhaling Salt
      • Steam from salt water is inhaled in chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract (pharynx, paranasal sinuses, and bronchial tree) or to ease the discomfort of a common cold. Let's not forget that Hippocrates had already recommended this treatment! The age-old method is to heat a salt solution to obtain steam but modern ultrasound atomising can now transport minute salt particles directly to tiny bronchia. The main effects of salt on the bronchial system are to stimulate secretion, loosen and help eliminate viscous secretions, inhibit inflammation, reduce irritation causing cough, clean the mucous membrane of the kinocilium, and contract (bronchoconstriction) or extend (dilatation) the respiratory ducts.
        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Drinking Salt Water
      • Salt water, when drunk, has an expectorant effect in the stomach and increases gastric juice secretion. It raises the level of stomach acid, hastens its production, impedes or stimulates stomach motricity and emptying-rate (depending upon the salt concentration), increases the secretion of the pancreas, and at higher salt concentrations, stimulates the formation of bile acids.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Salt as a Vector
      • Rock salt is of higher purity than sea-salt which can be contaminated with many minerals and other substances. Some of these contaminants, such as iodine, can be beneficial to health. Iodine deficiency is a major health risk. It gives rise to a thyroid gland disease characterised by hormonal disturbances causing cretinism and by a goitre which can be so large that it may block airflow through the throat or reach externally right down to the collar bone (7). Goitre used to be endemic in regions far from the sea such as the Alps but was rarely encountered in countries of southern Europe bordering the Mediterranean. Nowadays, Germany is the only industrial nation where goitre, due to a lack of iodine, is still common. This is because, despite the known health risk, part of the German food industry still uses the cheaper iodine-free salt for economic reasons. No legal measure makes the use of iodised salt compulsory in Germany. The health authorities must rely on public information campaigns promoting the benefits of salt with iodine.
        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Homeopathic Salt
      • N.H. Schübler (1821-1898), a German doctor, developed a special "biochemical" therapy based on 12 mineral salts which he considered crucial for cell function. This therapy is still used today. For Schübler, health resulted from a balance among these salts, disease from a disequilibrium. Common salt (sodium chloride) was one of his 12 salts. He administered the salts in homeopathic doses in an extremely wide range of indications (anaemia, loss of appetite, loss of weight, common cold, stomach and intestinal disorders, watery diarrhoea, constipation, haemorrhoids, rashes, rheumatic troubles, headaches, fatigue) and externally against lip blisters, acne, comedo, skin fungus and sores.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • A Flip Side to the Coin?
      • In the Middle Ages, the School of Salerno warned against the excessive use of salt (see above). The subject of excessive salt use has been a matter of great controversy over the last three decades. Scientific medicine has found that a high salt intake from food, especially by people with an inherited sensitivity to salt, might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive studies have indicated that too much salt in food may lead to arterial hypertension. There are those who forbid the addition of any salt at all to food and those who suggest that consumption should be limited to around 5 or 6 grams a day. There are epidemiological studies that indicate that populations such as the Japanese who consume vast amounts of salt have a high incidence of CVD but no direct causal link has yet been definitively established between salt consumption and high blood pressure.

        The cumulative past experience of our human ancestors and an increasing volume of current scientific evidence indicate that salt is a major life-preserving substance and effective healing principle. As often, therefore, the question is one of balance. When do possible health risks override the beneficial and vital effects of an adequate salt intake? The answer probably depends on the individual (e).

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • Notes
      • (a) Science and medicine have tried to define the precise roles of salt in the healthy and diseased human organism. Blood, sweat, and tears all contain salt, and both the skin and the eyes are protected from infectious germs by the anti-bacterial effect of salt. When salt is added to a liquid, particles with opposite charges are formed: a positively charged sodium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion. This is the basis of osmosis which regulates fluid pressure within living cells and protects the body against excessive water loss (as in diarrhoea or on heavy sweating). Sodium and chloride ions, as well as potassium ions, create a measurable difference in potential across cell membranes. This ensures that the fluid inside living cells remains separate from that outside. Thus, although the human body consists mainly of water, our "inner ocean" does not flow away or evaporate. Sodium ions create a high pressure of liquid in the kidneys and thus regulate their metabolic function. Water is extracted through the renal drainage system. The body thus loses a minimal amount of essential water. Out of 1500 litres of blood which pass daily through the kidneys, only about 1.5 litres of liquid leave the body as urine. Salt is "fuel" for nerves. Streams of positively and negatively charged ions send impulses to nerve fibers. A muscle cell will only contract if an impulse reaches it. Nerve impulses are partly propelled by co-ordinated changes in charged particles.

        (b) According to modern scientific research, salt does indeed have weak disinfectant properties when applied topically.

        (c) Inhaling steam from salt water has become an established treatment for acute and chronic respiratory diseases in spa-, balneo- and thalasso- therapies

        (d) The mineral composition of Dead Sea salt is slightly different from that of common sea salt. Dead Sea salt is considered to be particularly useful in chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis.

        (e) I acknowledge with thanks Johanna S. Gordon's help in translating the German draft of this article.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
    • References
      • 1. Cirillo M, Capasso G, Di Leo VA, De Santo NG. A history of salt. Am J Nephrol 14, 426-31, 1994.

        2. Denton D. The hunger for salt. An anthropological, physiological and medical analysis. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1982.

        3. Ritz E. The history of salt - aspects of interest to the nephrologist. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11, 969-75, 1996.

        4. Wormer EJ. Heilkraft des Salzes. Suedwest Verlag, Munich, 1995.

        5. Wormer EJ. Salz in der Medizin. In: Treml M, Jahn W, Brockhoff E (eds.): Salz Macht Geschichte (Collection of essays and catalogue). Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte, Augsburg, 1995, p. 48-55

        6. Porter, Roy (ed.). The medical history of waters and spas. Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London 1990.

        7. Merke F. Geschichte und Ikonographie des endemischen Kropfes und Kretinismus (History and Iconography of Endemic Goitre and Cretinism). Verlag Hans Huber, Bern, 1971.

        • Source:
          Science Tribune - Article - March 1999
          by Eberhard J. Wormer
          http://www.tribunes.com/tribune/sel/worm.htm
  • Scientia Press Report in Summary
    • How Smart Salt Therapy Points to the Aroma TherapipeTM
      • It appears that the Russians have not attempted to use HT (Halotherapy) in modalities outside of the clinic. Achieving 1-4 month remission in asthma, for example, as a result of a course of clinical HT (Krasnoshtein et al., 1999) does not seem particularly valuable. In contrast, modest daily dosing with a handheld inhaler might provide reliable freedom from exacerbations and superior long-term disease outcomes. This approach also might overcome the objection of some Western observers - - that HT might simply provide short-term symptomatic relief. These critics seem implicit to accept the notion that HT is best delivered in a clinical setting.
        • Source:
          Scientia Press
          Halotherapy: Aerosol Salt Treatment of Respiratory Diseases
    • Conclusion - Scientia Press Report
      • Halotherapy has been shown in clinical trials of steadily increasing rigor to confer significant benefits in the treatment of asthma and chronic bronchitis. The failure of Western medical researchers to investigate it and of Western respiratory specialists to use it stems from various causes including unfamiliarity with the Russian language literature, narrow focus on drugs, and general medical conservatism. Halotherapy enjoys many advantages. Unlike certain other physical therapies, HT is inherently plausible and understandable by expert and layperson alike. Now that aerosol salt therapy has climbed out of the salt mines and gained momentum as a subject of scientific investigation and practical application, potential critics have a much harder time dismissing it. Halotherapy appears to be an excellent microbicide and mucokinetic/expectorant. HT is rather inexpensive - - cheaper than speleotherapy and much cheaper than some competing drugs. It has minimal side effects in the case of halite HT and quite minor ones in the case of silvinite HT. There are no reports of interactions with drugs or of the development of microbial resistance to HT. And its close-to-nature character appeals to patients. HT's ability to perform as a mainline or adjuvant therapy in virtually all respiratory diseases makes it especially valuable. It also possesses untapped potential as a source of general prophylaxis and invigoration for healthy people.
        • Source:
          Scientia Press
          Halotherapy: Aerosol Salt Treatment of Respiratory Diseases
  • Other Ways that SaltRocks!TM
    • Salt has more than 14,000 uses. According to the Salt Institute, an Alexandria, Virginia-based organization that represents the salt industry (www.saltinstitute.org), salt can be used for everything from thawing ice to relaxing tired muscles . . .

      • Salt in the Kitchen

      • » To ease the peeling of eggs: boil them in salt water.
      • » To test an egg for freshness: place an egg in a cup of water and add a couple teaspoons of
        table salt - a fresh egg will sink, a spoiled egg will float.
      • » To prevent mold on cheese: add a pinch of salt to your cheese and wrap in plastic.
      • » To keep milk fresher longer: add a pinch of salt to the carton or bottle.
      • » To cut odors and prevent grease build up in sinks:
        clean and rinse with a simple saline solution of water and salt.


      • Salt for Your Health

        Salt is the Earth's Most Potent, Natural Antibiotic
      • » To kick a smoking habit: Whenever that ugly urge to smoke starts to nag, lick a little salt with
        the tip of your tongue. This is believed to break the habit within one month.
      • » To soothe ear pain: Place about half a cup of salt (or enough to cover the ear while lying
        down) in a thick sock for approximately one minute in the microwave on high. Place an
        elastic band at the end or tie.
      • » To alleviate pinkeye (conjunctivitis): Dissolve 1/4 teaspoon salt into 8 ounces warm water.
        Dispense 2-3 drops of this solution into the infected eye. Can use a clean cotton-tipped
        applicator or cotton ball, beginning at the corner of the eye and wiping downward onto
        the skin. Continue doing this 3 times per day for 3 days or until infection is cleared.
      • » To prevent and alleviate sore throat: Gargle regularly during the winter months with a warm
        iodized or sea salt and water mixture.
      • » To help heal a canker sore: Mix 2 tablespoons of salt in 6 ounces of warm water and use
        as a mouth rinse 3-4 timer per day. Salt draws fluid from the sore and promotes healing.
        Be sure to spit this solution out instead of swallowing.
      • » To relieve cold symptoms & croup: In a large bowl add 1/4 cup salt to steaming water. Make
        a tent by covering the head and the bowl with a towel. Inhale the vapors for at least two
        minutes while head is a comfortable distance from the steaming bowl. Repeat. The salty
        steam thins secretions, relieving a stuffy nose and cough.
      • » To calm the flu: Prepare a warm bath with 2 cups Epsom salts. Soak for at least five minutes.
      • » To relieve eczema: Add 1 cup sea salt with a few drops of lavender oil to the tub. This
        combination is calming and healing.
      • » To relieve rash: Soak the affected area in a solution of Epsom salt and water for thirty
        minutes daily. Or make a paste with Epsom salt and apply to the rash.
      • » To aid a headache from dehydration/vomiting/diarrhea/nausea:
        Mix 1 tablespoon sugar, 1/4 teaspoon salt, and the juice of half a lime (or lemon) into a pint
        of water. Sip slowly.
        Option for electrolytes lost due to vomiting and/or diarrhea:
        Mix 1 teaspoon salt and 2 teaspoons sugar into 16 ounces of lemon or orange juice.
        Add 8 ounces water and slowly sip 2-3 ounces after vomiting. This combination helps
        restore the body's balance of electrolytes, giving relief to a dehydration-induced headache
        or restoring needed nutrients after vomiting and/or diarrhea.
      • » To relieve toothache: Dissolve 2 tablespoons salt in 1 cup boiling water; cool slightly.
        Swish in the mouth as hot as possible without scalding. Slosh around the tooth, then spit.
        Repeat as needed.
      • » To buy time after a rattlesnake bite: Wet the area, apply salt to the wound, then wrap and
        seek urgent medical assistance.
      • » For fresher breath: Blend equal parts of salt and baking soda in warm water and swish.
      • » For a Colon Cleanse: Mix 2 teaspoons (NOT tablespoons!) of un-iodized sea salt to 1 quart of
        warm water (can add a little lemon juice to disguise the taste and can add a dash of baking
        soda to further alkalize the solution) and immediately drink the whole quart. Not applicable
        for high blood pressure/hypertensive patients or those on salt restriction. Caution to the
        sensitive: This solution has also been reported to cause vomiting and/or nausea as an
        emetic but for those with tolerance, it's reported to be very effective.
      • » For Urinary Tract Infection and Acid Reflux: Mix 1-2 teaspoons (NOT tablespoons!) of un-
        iodized sea salt to 1 glass of warm water. This solution can potentially act as an emetic
        (causing vomiting and/or nausea) so sensitive individuals should take caution.

      • Salt for Your Beauty

        Sea salt has a healing effect - it pulls toxins from the body and soothes the skin.
      • » For a rejuvenating, detoxifying bath:
        1. Add a cup of sea salt to a warm bath and soak for at least ten minutes.
        2. Add 1/2 cup sea salt and 1/2 cup baking soda or Epsom salts to warm water and soak.
        3. Add 1/2 cup sea salt, 1/2 cup baking soda and 6 ounces 3% hydrogen peroxide to 1/2 tub
             of warm water. May increase 3% hydrogen peroxide up to 2 cups per bath. Soak at least
             1/2 hour. In Addition: Scented oils such as lavender, rosemary and peppermint (and
             marjoram for a headache) can be added to the bath for both fragrance and to soften skin.
      • » To reduce puffy areas around the eyes: Apply cotton pads soaked in salt water (one
        tablespoon of salt in a pint of hot water).
      • » For a stimulating facial: Mix equal parts of sea salt and olive oil. Gently massage the face
        and throat with long upward and inward strokes. Remove the mixture after five minutes and
        wash with mild soap and water.

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